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James B. Lewis – Research Analyst and Technical Editor

Jim LewisJim worked as a researcher in molecular biology for 23 years before doing consulting work and research analysis for Foresight Nanotech Institute.

Jim received a B.A. in chemistry from the University of Pennsylvania in 1967, an M.A. in chemistry from Harvard University in 1968, and a Ph.D. in chemistry, from Harvard University in 1972. After doing postdoctoral research at the Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, Lausanne, Switzerland, from 1971-1973, Jim did research in the molecular biology of tumor viruses at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, from 1973-1980, first as a postdoctoral researcher, and then as a Staff Investigator and Senior Staff Investigator. He continued his research as an Associate Member, Basic Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, from 1980-1988, and then joined the Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute in Seattle, WA, as a Senior Research Investigator from 1988-1996. Since 1996 he has been working as a consultant on nanotechnology.

"After my graduate work in RNA biochemistry and structure, I spent 17 years studying the molecular biology of DNA tumor viruses, with emphasis on the adenovirus oncogenes. I switched research focus upon joining Bristol-Myers Squibb, first doing some work on HIV proteins, and then spending 6 years working on active immunotherapy for cancer (cancer vaccines). During my last six months at BMS, I switched projects again, returning to molecular virology to begin a project to identify viral protein - cellular protein interactions that are important for the pathogenicity of HIV in the hope that these interactions would prove useful targets for drug screening."

After reading Engines of Creation in 1986, Jim became fascinated with the prospects for advanced nanotechnologies and began to wonder how our current technology base could grow towards molecular machine systems and from there to advanced nanotechnology.

Nanotechnology articles written

Jim posts regularly on Foresight's nanotechnology blog Nanodot. Links to selected earlier articles in Foresight Update and other publications can be found here.

Productive Nanosystems Roadmap Articles

During 2007 Jim participated in a first attempt to map the developments needed to move from current capabilities in nanotechnology to advanced systems. Productive Nanosystems: A Technology Roadmap was developed by Foresight Nanotech Institute and Battelle, with initial funding from the Waitt Family Foundation. Jim wrote two papers for the Working Group Proceedings (14.6 MB PDF) part of the roadmap:

"Nucleic Acid Engineering" J. Lewis, pages 07-1 to 07-7
"Structural DNA nanotechnology provides the ability to construct molecularly precise structures based upon the well understood molecular recognition properties of DNA. …"

"DNA as an Aid to Self-Assembly" J. Lewis, pages 08-1 to 08-9
"… DNA nanostructures have already been used to organize arrays of guest molecules and nanostructures. DNA devices that 'walk' along DNA tracks, organize components for covalent bond formation, and function mechanically in a DNA array have also been demonstrated."

Summarizing progress toward advanced nanotechnology

In 2009, Jim wrote a 10,000-word overview of the road from current to advanced nanotechnology, with emphasis on the most significant advances since the Productive Nanosystems Roadmap was completed in mid-2007:

"Productive Nanosystems as a Milestone Toward Geoethical Nanotechnology" James B. Lewis, Ph.D., Journal of Geoethical Nanotechnology, Volume 4, Issue 1 May 2009

Exploring similarities and differences between recombinant DNA technology and self-replicating molecular manufacturing

Jim wrote a 4,000-word article for Terasem Movement, Inc.'s 5th Annual Workshop on Geoethical Nanotechnology (held on July 20, 2009 at the Terasem Island Amphitheatre in the virtual meeting environment of "Second Life") examining to what extent the 1975 Asilomar Conference, held to recommend safety procedures for recombinant DNA research, provides a model for regulating self-replicating molecular manufacturing, once this technology becomes imminent.

"Recombinant DNA and Self-replicating Molecular Manufacturing: Parallels and Lessons" James B. Lewis, Ph.D., Journal of Geoethical Nanotechnology, Volume 4, Issue 2 4th Quarter 2009

Nanotechnology Books Edited

James B. Lewis
Foresight Institute
PO Box 61058
Palo Alto, CA 94306 USA
tel +1 (650) 917 1122
fax +1 (650) 917 1123
email jlewis@foresight.org

Research Publications: 1970–1993

1. Lewis JB, Doty P. Derivation of the secondary structure of 5S RNA from its binding of complementary oligonucleotides. Nature 225: 510-512, 1970.

2. Schimmel PR, Uhlenbeck OC, Lewis JB, Dickson LA, Eldred EW, Schreier AA. Binding of complementary oligonucleotides to free and aminoacyl transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase bound transfer ribonucleic acid. Biochemistry 11: 642-646, 1972.

3. Lewis JB, Brass LF, Doty P. A comparison of the binding to polynucleotides of complementary and noncomplementary oligonucleotides. Biochemistry 14: 3164-3171, 1975.

4. Lewis JB, Doty P. Identification of the single-strand regions in Escherichia coli 5S RNA, native and A forms, by the binding of oligonucleotides. Biochemistry 16: 5016-5025, 1977.

5. Lewis JB. In vitro synthesis of SV40 and polyoma proteins. Experientia 29: 776, 1973.

6. Béard P, Lewis J. Separation of the strands of polyoma DNA. Experientia 30: 699, 1974.

7. Anderson CW, Lewis JB, Atkins JF, Gesteland RF. Cell-free synthesis of adenovirus 2 proteins programmed by fractionated messenger RNA: a comparison of polypeptide products and messenger RNA lengths. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 71: 2756-2760, 1974.

8. Lewis JB, Anderson CW, Atkins JF, Gesteland RF. The origin and destiny of adenovirus proteins. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 39: 581-590, 1974.

9. Atkins JF, Lewis JB, Anderson CW, Gesteland RF. Enhanced differential synthesis of proteins in a mammalian cell-free system by addition of polyamines. J. Biol. Chem. 250: 5688-5695, 1975.

10. Lewis JB, Atkins JF, Anderson CW, Baum PR, Gesteland RF. Mapping of late adenovirus genes by cell-free translation of RNA selected by hybridization to specific DNA fragments. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 1344-1348, 1975.

11. Atkins JF, Lewis JB, Anderson CW, Baum PR, Gesteland RF. Mapping of adenovirus 2 genes by translation of RNA selected by hybridization. In INSERM Symposium: 47, AL Haenni and G Beaud, eds. (Paris). pp. 293-298.

12. Lewis JB, Atkins JF, Baum PR, Solem R, Gesteland RF, Anderson CW. Location and identification of the genes for adenovirus type 2 early polypeptides. Cell 7: 141-151, 1976.

13. Anderson CW, Lewis JB, Baum PR, Gesteland RF. Simian virus 40-specific polypeptides in Ad2+ND1- and Ad2+ND4-infected cells. J. Virol. 18: 685-692, 1976.

14. Grodzicker T, Lewis JB, Anderson CW. Conditional lethal mutants of adenovirus type 2-simian virus 40 hybrids: II. Ad2+ND1 host-range mutants that synthesize fragments of the Ad2+ND1 30K protein. J. Virol. 19: 559-571, 1976.

15. Chow LT, Roberts JM, Lewis JB, Broker TR. A map of cytoplasmic RNA transcripts from lytic adenovirus type 2, determined by electron microscopy of RNA:DNA hybrids. Cell 11: 819-836, 1977.

16. Lewis JB, Anderson CW, Atkins JF. Further mapping of late adenovirus genes by cell-free translation of RNA selected by hybridization to specific DNA fragments. Cell 12: 37-44, 1977.

17. Gesteland RF, Wills N, Lewis JB, Grodzicker T. Identification of amber and ochre mutants of the human virus Ad2+ND1. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 4567-4571, 1977.

18. Harter ML, Lewis JB. Adenovirus coded proteins in extracts of human cells early after infection. In INSERM Symposium: 69, P May, R Monier, and R Weil, eds. (Paris). pp. 153-160.

19. Harter ML, Lewis JB. Adenovirus type 2 early proteins in synthesized in vitro and in vivo: identification in infected cells of the 38,000- to 50,000-molecular-weight protein encoded by the left end of the adenovirus type 2 genome. J. Virol. 26: 736-749, 1978.

20. Broker TR, Chow LT, Dunn AR, Gelinas RE, Hassell JA, Klessig DF, Lewis JB, Roberts RJ, and Zain BS. Adenovirus-2 messengers--an example of baroque molecular architecture. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 42: 531-553, 1977.

21. Fey G, Lewis JB, Grodzicker T, Bothwell A. Characterization of a fused protein specified by the adenovirus type 2-simian virus 40 hybrid Ad2+ND1 dp2. J. Virol. 30: 201-217, 1979.

22. Harter ML, Lewis JB, Anderson CW. Adenovirus type 2 terminal protein: purification and comparison of tryptic peptides with known adenovirus-coded proteins. J. Virol. 31: 823-835, 1979.

23. Chow LT, Broker TR, Lewis JB. Complex splicing patterns of RNAs from the early regions of adenovirus-2. J. Mol. Biol. 134: 265-303, 1979.

24. Chow LT, Lewis JB, Broker TR. RNA transcription and splicing at early and intermediate times after adenovirus-2 infection. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 44: 401-414, 1979.

25. Lewis JB, Esche H, Smart JE, Stillman BW, Harter ML, Mathews MB. Organization and expression of the left third of the genome of adenovirus. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 44: 493-508, 1979.

26. Anderson CW, Lewis JB. Amino-terminal sequence of adenovirus type 2 proteins: hexon, fiber, component IX, and early protein 1B-15K. Virology 104: 27-41, 1980.

27. Lewis JB, Mathews MB. Control of adenovirus early gene expression: a class of immediate early products. Cell 21: 303-313, 1980.

28. Mathews MB, Lewis JB. Regulation of adenovirus early gene expression. In ICN-UCLA Symposium on Animal Virus Genetics, pp. 327-338. Academic Press, New York.

29. Esche H, Mathews MB, Lewis JB. Proteins and messenger RNAs of the transforming region of wild-type and mutant adenoviruses. J. Mol. Biol. 142: 399-417, 1980.

30. Stillman BW, Lewis JB, Chow LT, Mathews MB, Smart JE. Identification of the gene and mRNA for the adenovirus terminal protein precursor. Cell 23: 497-508, 1981.

31. Smart JE, Lewis JB, Mathews MB, Harter ML, Anderson CW. Adenovirus type 2 early proteins: assignment of the early region 1A proteins synthesized in vivo and in vitro to specific mRNAs. Virology 112: 703-713, 1981.

32. Lewis JB, Mathews MB. Viral messenger RNAs in six lines of adenovirus-transformed cells. Virology 115: 345-360, 1981.

33. Galloway DA, Goldstein LC, Lewis JB. Identification of proteins encoded by a fragment of herpes simplex virus type 2 DNA that has transforming activity. J. Virol. 42: 530-537, 1982.

34. Lewis JB, Anderson CW. Proteins encoded near the adenovirus late messenger RNA leader segments. Virology 127: 112-123, 1983.

35. Anderson CW, Schmitt RC, Smart JE, Lewis JB. Early region 1B of adenovirus 2 encodes two coterminal proteins of 495 and 155 amino acid residues. J. Virol. 50: 387-396, 1984.

36. Trüeb B, Lewis JB, Carter WG. Translatable mRNA for GP140 (a subunit of type VI collagen) is absent in SV40 transformed fibroblasts. J. Cell Biol. 100: 638-641, 1985.

37. Lewis JB, Fahnestock ML, Hardy MM, Anderson CW. Presence in infected cells of nonvirion proteins encoded by adenovirus messenger RNAs of the major late transcription regions L0 and L1. Virology 143: 452-466, 1985.

38. Senear AW, Lewis JB. Morphological transformation of established rodent cell lines by high-level expression of the adenovirus type 2 E1a gene. Mol. Cell. Biol. 6: 1253-1260, 1986.

39. Schmitt RC, Fahnestock ML, Lewis JB. Differential nuclear localization of the major adenovirus type 2 E1a proteins. J. Virol. 61: 247-255, 1987.

40. Lewis JB, Anderson CW. Identification of adenovirus type 2 early region 1B proteins that share the same amino terminus as do the 495R and 155R proteins. J. Virol. 61: 3879-3888, 1987.

41. Anderson CW, Hardy MM, Lewis JB. Abnormal expression of a late gene family L1 protein in monkey cells abortively infected with adenovirus type 2.Virus Genes 1: 149-164, 1988.

42. Fahnestock ML, Lewis JB. Genetic dissection of the transactivating domain of the E1a 289R protein of adenovirus type 2. J. Virol. 63: 1495-1504, 1989.

43. Fahnestock ML, Lewis JB. Limited temperature-sensitive transactivation by mutant adenovirus type 2 E1a proteins. J. Virol. 63: 2348-2351, 1989.

44. Klaniecki J, Dykers T, Travis B, Schmitt R, Wain M, Watson A, Sridhar P, McClure J, Morein B, Ulrich JT, Hu S-L, Lewis J. Cross-neutralizing antibodies in rabbits immunized with HIV-1 gp160 purified from simian cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus. AIDS Res. Human Retroviruses 7: 791-798, 1991.

45. Travis BM, Dykers TI, Hewgill D, Ledbetter J, Tsu TT, Hu S-L, Lewis JB. Functional roles of the V3 hypervariable region of HIV-1 gp160 in the processing of gp160 and in the formation of syncytia in CD4+ cells. Virology 186: 313-317, 1992.

46. Bu D, Domenech N, Lewis J, Taylor-Papadimitriou J, Finn OJ. Recombinant vaccinia mucin vector: in vitro analysis of expression of tumor-associated epitopes for antibody and human cytotoxic T-cell recognition. J. Immunotherapy 14: 127-135, 1993.