Monitoring of Electromagnetic Activity and Brain Quantum Computing, Related with Neural Microtubule (Dys)function under Young's Interference Action of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation or Electroconvulsivetherapy, with a Nanoprobe built with Carbon Nanotube Transistors
Hospital Distrital de Faro/Psychiatry and University of Porto/Bioengineering,
Faro 8000-441 PORTUGAL
Background and Methods: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and Electroconvulsivetherapy (ECT) have antidepressant effect. As demonstrated by others and stressed through this study, during depression, the neurons begin to lose their dendrites and synapses (the synaptic cleft behaves like a capacitor's dielectric space, i.e., as a nanostore of Electrical Energy ), and this loss may be due to the phosphorylation of the Microtubule–Associated Protein type 2 (MAP-2) by cyclic Adenosine 3', 5'–Monophosphate ( cAMP )–dependent Protein Kinase ( PK ), in response to increased cAMP. The prolonged desmethylimipramine treatment elicites changes in the endogenous phosphorylation of the MAP-2, and this effect seems to be mediated by a modulation of the cAMP–dependent PK (Giorgio Racagni et al.). The MAP-2 is a protein substrate for the mitogen-activated protein Kinase cascade. According to Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff, within the neurons, the MAPs tune and orchestrate quantum oscillations of the Microtubules (MTs), and set possibilities for collapse outcomes (orchestrated Objective Reduction). A neural MT-MAP complex creates, inside the neuron, a Nano-Magnetospheric Plasma Environment. Also, long term superlattice attachment pattern of MAPs on MTs support long distance, coherent, giga-Hertz-range, excitations in the cytoskeleton and Energy/Information conversion in neurons; a structural inherent phonon spectrum depends on MAPs locations and can function in a memory storage capacity (A Samsonovich et al.). Helical pathway of electron's conductivity at the MT's cylindrical surface is coupled with (the corresponding) MT generated magnetic field (the MT as a nanocoil, i.e., as a nanostore of Magnetic Energy ). Interestingly, MTs share with Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) (Cees Dekker et al.) some common (equivalent) physical properties. It is expected the generation of Young's pattern of interference of emitted photons (Chuchei Oshima et al.) through the MTs and, more impressively, when the brain is submitted to a magnetic/electric field provided by TMS or ECT.
Results and Conclusions: It has been made a first attempt to project a nanoprobe, constituted by CNTTs (Carbon Nanotube Transistors), aiming the feasible monitoring of the electromagnetic activity and brain quantum computing related with neural MT (dys)function, under Young's interference action related with therapeutical use of an exogenous magnetic/electric field, provided by TMS or ECT.