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Golden Mean as a Driving Force of Molecular Self-Assembly

Lidija R Matija*, a and Djuro L Korugab

aInstitute of technical Sciences of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts,
Knez Mihajilova 35/IV, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia

bMolecular Machines Research Center, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade
27.Marta br.80, 11120 Belgrade, Yugoslavia

This is an abstract for a presentation given at the
10th Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology


Biomolecular systems are one of the most complex technologies. In spite of that, structural information code (DNA) is based on only four elements, in form as an aperiodic crystal. However, it has been shown that the genetic code is a Golden mean determined system .[1] On the other hand, the Golden mean is driving force of protein biomolecular machinery. [2] For nanotechnology it is important to find biomolecules as a system which structure and energy properties are based on Golden mean. Based on nanobiology knowledge we can develop a new materials with self-assembles properties for molecular nanotechnology. [3]

Clathrin and microtubules are two main proteins which structure and energy properties are based on Golden mean.. Clathrins are "soccer ball" shape proteins from 60 to 90 nm in diameter. They are a major components of coated vesicles, important organelles for intracellular material transfer including synaptic neurotransmitter release.

Microtubules are biopolymers present in all eucariotic cells. They are involved in several specialized functions, including cell shape regulation, mitosis, intracellular translocation, cell motility, and secretion. Structurally, microtubules are hollow cylinders 25 nm in diameter which are composed of 13 linear chains (protofilaments) which consist of protein subunits called tubulin. Since some experimental results link tubulin and microtubules to bioinformation processes such as memory, learning and consciousness microtubules have become the subject of intensive research [4]

Nanotubes are similar to microtubules like C60 molecule is similar to clathrin. Nanotubes are quasi-1D structure, while C60 is quasi-0D entity; first crystallize around axis ( 1-dimension) and second crystallize around point (0-dimension). There are single-wall and multi-wall nanotubes with different physical properties.

We are proposing one possible approach to problem solution of molecular nanotechnology based on Golden mean. Nanomaterials will be fullerene molecule C60 with intelligent solvent and pulsing density of magnetic flux by Golden mean. We plan to use knowledge from nanobiology (self-assembly of clathrins and microtubules) to molecular nanotechnology ( C60 and nanotubes) in sense like relationship between the flight of a bird and the flight of an aircraft: both use wings but in different manners. Golden mean is very powerful force of self-assembly in molecular biology (DNA and proteins). It is possible to take this knowledge from nanobiology and implement it to molecular nanotechnology.


  1. Rakocevic,M., The genetic code as a Golden mean determined system, BioSystems, 46: pp283-291,1998.
  2. Koruga,D. et. al. A new classification of amino acids by module 3/2, Arcive of Oncology, Vol.5, No.3, pp.137-139, 1997
  3. Koruga,D., et al, Fullerene C60: History, Physics, Nanobiology, Nanotechnology, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1993
  4. Hameroff,S. Penrose,R., Orchestrated Reduction of Quantum Coherence in Brain Microtubules: A model for Consciousness, pp.508-540, in book: Toward of a Science of Consciousness, MIT Press 1996.

Abstract in Microsoft Word® format 27,974 bytes

*Corresponding Address:
Lidija R Matija
Institute of technical Sciences of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Knez Mihajilova 35/IV, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia
Phone: +(381) 11 337 0384 Fax: +(381) 11 337 0384


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