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News Library 2000 - 2004

News about Foresight

Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology

The 1st Conference on Advanced Nanotechnology: Research, Applications, and Policy was held Oct. 22-24, 2004, Crystal City Marriott Hotel (Washington, DC Area).

Foresight Vision Weekend, Annual Senior Associates Gathering: "Putting Feynman's Vision into Action"

The 2004 Senior Associates Gathering was held in Palo Alto, California. May 14-16, 2004. A tutorial on Fundamentals of Nanotechnology was held on May 14.

Newsletter current issue

The current issue of our newsletter is Foresight Update 54 August, 2004.

Foresight Institute Stage 2

The initial goal of Foresight Institute has been achieved. Next comes Stage 2: Implementation—making molecular nanotechnology (MNT) happen sooner rather than later.

Foresight Conference and Tutorial on Molecular Nanotechnology

The 11th Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology was held in San Francisco Airport Marriott, Burlingame, California, on Oct. 10-12, 2003, with an optional tutorial on Oct. 9

Foresight Vision Weekend, Annual Senior Associates Gathering: "Molecular Myth, Manufacturing, Money and Mania—Will the real nanotechnology please self assemble!"

The 2003 Senior Associates Gathering was held in Palo Alto, California. May 2-4, 2003.

Foresight Challenge Grant for 2004

$40,000 Challenge Grant announced. Deadline January 31 — donate by December 31 for 2003 tax deduction.

Foresight Challenge Grant for 2003

$50,000 Challenge Grant deadline was met, thanks to many donors including the Internet Science Education Project, whose timely donation brought us to our goal.

Foresight Conference and Tutorial on Molecular Nanotechnology

The 10th Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology was held in Bethesda, Maryland, on Oct. 11-13, 2002, with an optional tutorial on Oct. 10

Spring 2002 Senior Associates Gathering

The Spring 2002 Senior Associates Gathering was held in Palo Alto, California. April 26-28, 2002.

Nanotechnology: Six Lessons from Sept. 11

Read "Nanotechnology: Six Lessons from Sept. 11", a letter from Foresight Chairman Eric Drexler, and a $50,000 Challenge Grant. As of January 31, we met the entire Challenge Grant amount and earned the full $50,000 matching fund. Thanks to all who participated.

Foresight Conference and Tutorial on Molecular Nanotechnology

The Ninth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology was held November 9-11, 2001, in Santa Clara, Silicon Valley, California, preceded by an introductory Tutorial on Foundations of Nanotechnology on November 8.

Spring 2001 Senior Associate Gathering

The Spring 2001 Senior Associate Gathering "Exploring the Edge" will be held April 20-22, 2001, Palo Alto, CA. Here at Foresight we bring together folks from the bleeding edge of change in widely dispersed fields. By combining enough informed perspectives, we have a chance of figuring out what's coming, how to adapt, and when to get in there and help push things in a different direction.

Foresight Challenge Grant for 2001 announced

Foresight must raise $35,000 to earn $35,000 challenge: deadline for matching funds is Jan 31, 2001; deadline for year 2000 U.S. tax deductions is Dec. 31, 2000.

Foresight Conference and Tutorial on Molecular Nanotechnology

The Eighth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology was held November 3-5, 2000, in Bethesda, Maryland, preceded by an introductory Tutorial on Foundations of Nanotechnology on November 2.

Foresight launches online newspaper at based on Slashdot software

A message to Foresight members from Foresight Chairman Eric Drexler:

I'm happy to report that one of Foresight's long-term goals -- to have a way to meet online that truly works -- is now a reality at

We think of this site as our daily newspaper -- all the news that's fit to "print" -- combined with a continual Nanoschmooze discussion. No login is needed to read the site. To find out how to post, rather than just read, click the 'FAQ' link on the Nanodot home page.

The site uses the open-source software Slash, selected because of its reputation system, which enables those making high-quality posts to automatically gain a higher profile on the system.

For you and everyone else to gain the maximum benefit from this reputation system, we ask (but do not require) that you use your real name as your username (e.g. DaveKrieger). We expect this to help us all benefit in meatspace from our postings in cyberspace -- for example, in receiving job offers related to nanotechnology.

Now that we have this great system for sharing news, it's best to post all news to Nanodot, rather than to the Foresight staff who are overwhelmed by it.

Special thanks go to Senior Associate Dave Krieger for setting up and running the site, and to Senior Associate Jeff "Hemos" Bates of for co-founding and developing the Slash software, to which we hope to contribute improvements.

Please join your fellow Foresight members online. It will be the closest thing possible to an online Foresight Senior Associate Gathering.


Fall 2000 Senior Associate Gathering

The Fall 2000 Senior Associate Gathering was held Sept. 8-10, 2000, Palo Alto, California. Think you can handle rapid change? Better hope so, because coming technologies will turn our world on its head. What we need to navigate the coming decades is the best-informed advice we can get, combined with the moral support of a community that shares our values and goals.

"Confronting Singularity"

The Spring 2000 Senior Associate Gathering "Confronting Singularity" was held May 19-21, 2000. The tentative date for the Fall Senior Associates Gathering is Sept. 8-10, 2000.

Foresight annual Challenge Grant a success

The full amount of the Foresight annual challenge grant was earned. $50,000 in new donations were obtained by January 31, 2000, to earn the $50,000 challenge.

New Nanomedicine Challenge Grant a success

The full amount of the new challenge grant to support the completion of Volumes II and III of Nanomedicine has been earned.


Nanotechnology Headlines

Peptides evolved to bind to semiconductor surfaces

Scientists from the University of Texas at Austin and from the University of California, Santa Barbara used evolution in a test tube (in this case, combinatorial phage-display libraries) to select peptides that bind to specific semiconductor crystal surfaces, such as GaAs(100). In their research paper published in Nature they write: "We have shown the power of using phage-display libraries to identify, develop and amplify binding between organic peptide sequences and inorganic semiconductor substrates. ... We are currently designing bivalent synthetic peptides ... [that] have the potential to direct nanoparticles to specific locations on a semiconductor structure. These organic-inorganic pairs should provide powerful building blocks for the fabrication of a new generation of complex, sophisticated electronic structures."

Nanoplotter gains parallel writing capabilities

A multiple ink nano-plotter developed by researchers at Northwestern University using their "dip-pen" nanolithography (DPN) technology has now been furthered extended to "demonstrate an eight-pen nanoplotter capable of simultaneously creating eight identical patterns drawn with tiny lines of molecular ink. Each line is only 30 molecules wide and one molecule high." In their research paper in Science, the authors conclude "The number of pens that can be used in a parallel DPN experiment to reproduce nanostructures passively is not limited to eight. Indeed, there is no reason why the number of pens cannot be increased to hundreds or even a thousand pens without the need for additional feedback systems. Finally, this work opens avenues for researchers to begin using DPN and conventional AFM instrumentation to do high-resolution and aligned patterning of nanostructures on a large scale that is automated and moderately fast."

Keck Program in Nanobiotechnology to Support Graduate Students

"Starting in June 2000, the first 12 Ph.D. candidates will hit the laboratories of Cornell's new W.M. Keck Program in Nanobiotechnology. The program has been inaugurated with a three-year, $1.2 million grant from the W.M. Keck Foundation of Los Angeles and is expected to receive other sources of support." from Cornell Chronicle; alternate URL; UniSci URL

Nanoscale science and technology advances focus attention on nanotechnology

The path to molecular manufacturing will lead through increasingly capable and complex molecular machine systems and culminate in the ability to inexpensively manufacture devices and materials to complex atomically precise specifications. How specifically this will come about is not yet clear, and many technologies leading in that direction can be identified. The following advances do not include any obvious milestones on the road to more capable molecular machine systems, but they do illustrate (1) that rapid progress is occurring in a large number of relevant areas, (2) that many of these advances might have major useful applications short of molecular manufacturing systems, and (3) that many researchers and media observers are now aware of the connection between current research in nanoscale science and technology and the more distant capabilities of nanotechnology.

MEMS device separates DNA fragments and could eventually speed up DNA sequencing

"Researchers have long sought to create a 'laboratory on a chip' that could greatly speed up the process of DNA sequencing. That goal has come a step closer with the announcement that Cornell University researchers have built and tested a nanofabricated device that can separate DNA fragments by length."

  • Cornell press release May 15, 2000
  • "Separation of Long DNA Molecules in a Microfabricated Entropic Trap Array" by J. Han and H. G. Craighead, Science May 12 2000, 288: 1026-1029

New MEMS technique for making microfluidic channels on a chip

"Sandia's tiny canals on chips could expand uses for tomorrow's 'microfluidic' devices" "Researchers at the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories have created a new microchip processing technique that creates raised, microscopic canals on chips, through which liquids or gases can flow from one chip feature to another."

Molecule switches to mirror image by adding or removing one electron

A New York University team has developed a molecule that switches between two opposite mirror images (chiral states) simply by adding/removing an electron -- "could eventually have applications in molecular computing and other nanotechnology."

Single-molecule light source points toward molecular resolution in optical microscopy

"New Beacon Into Molecular World" in The New York Times, May 23, 2000: a laser beam was used to illuminate a single fluorescent molecule, thus providing a light source for near field microscopy. In the first use of this approach reported here and published in a research paper in Nature, the results show fuzzy images of half-micron scale ojects, but the researchers hope that the technique can be refined to provide molecular resolution in optical microscopy, and to facilitate studies of nanometer-scale phenomena.

  • "Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source" by J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek & V. Sandoghdar, Nature, May 18, 2000, 405: 325 - 328

Triangular quantum dots pump electrons under AC voltage

"Novel Semiconductor Quantum Ratchet Pumps Electrons" at News & Analysis @ semiconductor online, May 11, 2000: "Researchers at the University of New South Wales (UNSW; Sydney, Australia) and Lund University (Sweden) have explored what happens to electrons confined in a series of tiny lopsided semiconductor wells, like the teeth of a ratchet. They found the nanostructures converted the random movement of electrons into useful work. Possible applications for the "quantum ratchet" include biotechnology -- for sorting different-sized DNA fractions -- and as faster, more efficient logic gates in quantum computing."

Magnetic actuation folds micro-parts into 3-D structures

A team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated MEMS chips with hinges 100 microns on a side that elevate into the vertical dimension when a magnetic field is applied. By using a varying magnetic field and hinges with differing metallic content, the order in which parts become vertical and lock into place can be controlled.

Functioning nanostructures self-assemble out of ink

"Molecules with attitude, ready to perform" - a press release from Sandia National Laboratories on production of a nanoporous network of self-assembled functional molecules, the subject of a research paper published in the May 4 issue of Nature. "Here, using a self-assembling 'ink', we combine silica-surfactant self-assembly with three rapid printing procedures—pen lithography, ink-jet printing, and dip-coating of patterned self-assembled monolayers—to form functional, hierarchically organized structures in seconds"

Nanostructured coating offers superior properties for naval use

"Nanostructured coating approved for use on Navy ships" - a press release from the Office of Naval Research, dated 5 April 2000, announced that the Navy will begin using a nanostructured alumina-titania ceramic composite, with grains smaller than 100 nm, because it offers superior resistance to strain and wear.

Gold nanoparticles self-assembled by "brick and mortar" technique

Scientists at the University of Massachusetts have assembled 2-nm gold particles into aggregates varying in size according to the temperature of the experiment from about 100 nm to about 1000 nm. The gold nanoparticles were coated with an organic molecule chosen to specifically bind to a modified polystyrene molecule so that the polymer acted like "mortar" to join together the nanoparticle "bricks". It is hoped that nanostructured materials consturcted by such techniques would eventually find use in molecular scale circuits and ultra-sensitive sensors.

  • Press release "UMass research team builds something from (almost) nothing"
  • Research report: "Self-assembly of nanoparticles into structured spherical and network aggregates" by A. K. Boal, F. Ilhan, J. E. Derouchey, T.s Thurn-Albrecht, T. P. Russell & V. M. Rotello Nature 404:746-7485, 13 Apr. 2000.

Manipulating atoms at room temperature

British scientists have demonstrated that bromine atoms can be controllably pushed across a copper surface by a scanning tunneling microscope at room temperature. In this case, the most important variable controlling the manipulation is the current density at the atom. Since a variety of mechanisms have been reported for manipulating atoms using an STM, it is likely that the dominant mechanism will vary with the specifics of each experiment. "Manipulation of atoms across a surface at room temperature" by T. W. Fishlock, A. OraL, R. G. Egdell & J. B. Pethica, Nature 404:743-745, 13 Apr. 2000.

DNA molecular recognition causes micromachine movement

A team of Swiss researchers reported that a microfabricated silicon cantilever could be made to flex upon binding DNA. Immobilized on each 1 µm thick by 50 µm long cantilever were about 1010 molecules of a short segment of single strand DNA. Binding the complementary strand of DNA to form double strand DNA molecules caused the cantilever to bend. "We have found a way to get DNA to do the work for us, so we don't need batteries, motors, or the like to operate tiny machines," said James Gimzewski, a winner of the 1997 Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology.

  • From Yahoo News, April 14, 2000: "Tiny Machine Uses DNA to Do Its Work"
  • Research report "Translating Biomolecular Recognition into Nanomechanics" by J. Fritz, M. K. Baller, H. P. Lang, H. Rothuizen, P. Vettiger, E. Meyer, H.-J. Güntherodt, Ch. Gerber, J. K. Gimzewski Science, 288:316-318 , 14 Apr 2000.

Atomically precise patterns of organic molecules on silicon surfaces

Researchers at the University of Illinois Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology are able to tether organic molecules to a silicon surface at the precise positions where specific hydrogen atoms had previously been removed using a scanning tunneling microscope. The tethered molecules spin on the surface at 100 trillion times per second and "can be functionalized for potential electronic or mechanical switching properties." The researchers hope that this approach might provide a bridge between molecular electronics and silicon chip technology. "We're working with chemists now who are designing molecules that when attached will act like transistors that can switch at 100 trillion times a second," said Joseph Lyding, a professor of electrical and computer engineering.

NASA and the National Cancer Institute join to investigate nanomedicine

"NASA and National Cancer Institute join to develop nano-explorers for the human body": a press release announcing a joint effort beginning April 13, 2000, to develop microscopic sensors to detect, diagnose and treat disease inside the human body.

Molecular electronics company founded

The New York Times reported that Molecular Electronics Corp. has been founded by a team of prominent engineers, chemists and physicists that includes Mark Reed, James Tour, and Brosl Hasslacher: "A New Era in Technology for Computers" by John Markoff, published March 23, 2000. The new company's executives are reported to believe that they will create working models of molecular electronic devices within 18 to 24 months.

Nanoparticles may improve magnetic data storage

IBM researchers have developed a technique for self-assembly of iron and platinum atoms into arrays of 4nm-diameter magnetic particles that could be used to increase hard disk storage capacities 10 to 100 fold. Although not directly related to molecular manufacturing, this research is another example of current nanoscale science and technology advancing near term technical and economic solutions, thus justifying growing research investments in nanotechnology.

  • "I.B.M. Makes Breakthrough in Memory for Computers" by John Markoff, published in The New York Times, March 17, 2000
  • The research was reported in "Monodisperse FePt Nanoparticles and Ferromagnetic FePt Nanocrystal Superlattices" by S. Sun, C. B. Murray, D. Weller, L. Folks, A. Moser. Science 287: 1989 - 1992, 17 Mar 2000
  • "CHEMISTRY: Nanocrystals May Give Boost to Data Storage" by Robert F. Service, a commentary on the research report published in the same issue of Science pp. 1902 - 1903
  • Also, a brief mention in Time magazine: "One very, very small step for nanotechnology"
  • "IBM has disk drive breakthrough", by Tom Quinlan in the San Jose Mercury News

Gold quantum dots seed growth of silicon nanowires

University of Texas researchers have grown silicon nanowires 4 to 5 nm in diameter and several µm long using as seeds alkanethiol-coated gold nanocrystals about 2.5 nm in diameter. The silicon nanowires were defect-free and exhibited photolumiscence. Such wires might find use in making smaller computer circuits and in optoelectronic devices, such as flat panel displays.

First diamond micromachine constructed

Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have constructed a micromachine consisting of two combs that slide past each other powered by an electrical current. The micromachine is about 1 mm square with 2 micrometer feature sizes and is fabricated from polycrystalline diamond. The method is applicable to fabricating devices from polycrystalline diamond or coating silicon devices with polycrystalline diamond. Compared to silicon, diamond is much more wear resistant, less susceptible to stiction — a combination of stickiness and friction, and more biocompatible for use in medical devices. Although a far cry from atomically precise manufacturing, the advance is important in leading to improved MEMS devices, an intermediate technological step on the way to molecular manufacturing.

Electrostatic lithography used to imprint pattern in polymer film

A press release from the University of Massachusetts reports the use of electrostatic fields to transfer a pattern from a master electrode to a polystyrene film. 140 nm features were precisely replicated and the authors expressed confidence that the technique could be extended to lateral dimensions of less than 100 nm. This advance could lead to smaller integrated circuits, memory devices, and sensors. The published research article: "Electrically induced structure formation and pattern transfer" by E. Schäffer, T. Thurn-Albrecht, T.P. Russell, and Ullrich Steiner, Nature 403:874-877 (24 February 2000).

President Clinton announces National Nanotechnology Initiative as a top priority

On Friday January 21, 2000, in a speech at the California Institute of Technology, President Clinton proposed a $2.8 billion rise in U.S. research funding, including a $497 million "National Nanotechnology Initiative." A White House press release entitled "President Clinton announces nearly a $3 billion increase in Twenty-First Century Research Fund" listed the National Nanotechnology Initiative as the second of five items comprising the proposal:

"A new $497 million National Nanotechnology Initiative. Nanotechnology — the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules — could revolutionize the 21st century in the same way that the transistor and the Internet led to the Information Age. Increased investments in nanotechnology could lead to breakthroughs such as molecular computers that can store the contents of the Library of Congress in a device the size of a sugar cube, and new materials ten times stronger than steel and a fraction of the weight."

Further details are given in a press release from the Office of Science and Technology Policy: "National Nanotechnology Initiative — Leading To The Next Industrial Revolution" The initiative includes molecular manfacturing within its conceptual framework of nanotechnology, citing among potential breakthroughs that might be possible: "Making materials and products from the bottom-up, that is, by building them up from atoms and molecules. Bottom-up manufacturing should require less material and pollute less"

Web pages reporting Clinton's announcement include:

An internal government report entitled "National Nanotechnology Initiative" is to be released in early February and will be available at, where other related reports are already available.

National Nanotechnology Initiative Website: the official homepage for the NNI

View the President's Caltech address using RealPlayer at

For more, see story in Update 40

Xerox studies shape-shifting robots

An article "Xerox studies self-assembling modular robots" describes research at Xerox PARC on versatile robots that could re-configure themselves to adapt to new tasks and environments by re-arranging low-cost modules. Although these robots are macroscopic, "the lessons learned in programming such modular robots may simplify the integration of other large, multicomponent systems" (perhaps eventually including complex systems of microscopic components produced by molecular nanotechnology).

IBM announces supercomputing project to crack protein folding problem

Proteins constitute the largest existing class of molecular machines, and a large part of the problem of understanding how they work is understanding how the linear protein chain folds into a compact three dimensional structure. An early proposal for developing nanotechnology envisioned designing proteins that fold more predictably then do natural proteins (see "Molecular engineering: An approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation" on the IMM Web site). Therefore, IBM's recent announcement of a major initiative to computationally model protein folding is an important step in the development of nanotechnology.


What people are saying about nanotechnology

Bill Joy worries that robotics, genetic engineering and nanotechnology might make humans extinct

See also the special report in Update 41: "Oh, Joy! A Media Watch Special Report"

Writing in the April issue of Wired magazine "Why the future doesn't need us", computer pioneer Bill Joy expresses his concern that uncontrolled self-replication arising from advances in robotics, genetic engineering and nanotechnology might push humanity to extinction. Such self-replication would place the potential to destroy the world in the hands of small groups or even of individuals with the requisite knowledge. A second theme is that improving computers to exceed human intelligence will lead to replacing the human species with robots: "Given the incredible power of these new technologies, shouldn't we be asking how we can best coexist with them? And if our own extinction is a likely, or even possible, outcome of our technological development, shouldn't we proceed with great caution?"

Joy concludes that the only way to protect from the possibility of extinction is to "relinquish" the development of certain technologies: "I have always believed that making software more reliable, given its many uses, will make the world a safer and better place; if I were to come to believe the opposite, then I would be morally obligated to stop this work. I can now imagine such a day may come."

Joy's stance has already generated a great deal of comment and controversy. Joy was interviewed extensively on National Public Radio's "All Things Considered" March 14, 2000 (audio files available here). On March 13, 2000 The New York Times ran an aticle by John Markoff entitled "Technologist Gives His Peers a Dark Warning". The Washington Post ran a short article by Joel Garreau "From Internet Scientist, a Preview of Extinction".

Bill Joy also presented his viewpoint at an April 1, 2000 Stanford Symposium organized by Douglas Hofstadter: "Will spiritual robots replace humanity by 2100?" One of the panel members was Foresight Institute Board of Advisors member Ralph Merkle, who has placed his prepared comments on the Web: "Research is good".

April 10, 2000, in Salon Technology: Killjoy "Technology is changing our world -- and we should be afraid! Sun Microsystems chief scientist Bill Joy envisions a frightening future of self-replicating machines."

One group of technology enthusiasts has been inspired to reply to Bill Joy in music: "Rage for the machine", reported in an April 12 Salon Technology column by Damien Cave. "Techno group Mobius Dick take on Bill Joy and his apocalyptic view of technology's future in a new tune on ... Using computer-altered voices laid over sci-fi sound effects from the 1950s, a new tune by techno group Mobius Dick tries to carry on the tradition of rallying support for a social cause through song. Its social cause? Technology." The frontman of Mobius Dick is quoted: "Some kind of change is inevitable and people need to think about what kind," he says. "But inducing fear in others just won't cut it. There are a lot of options out there and we need to see what they are and decide what we want."

In a Government Computer News story by William Jackson dated May 8, 2000, Bill Joy stated "I won't work on nanotechnology." "Sun's Bill Joy doubts good things will come in small packages"

Max More challenges Joy's relinquishment policy on the grounds that "First, it's unworkable. Second, it's ethically appalling." "Embrace, Don't Relinquish, the Future". Additional responses published on the Extropy Institute Web site include "Promise and Peril: Deeply Intertwined Poles of Twenty First Century Technology" by Ray Kurzweil points out the importance of "fine grained" relinquishment rather than broad relinquishment; "Imagination Redux: A Joy-less Moment" by Natasha Vita-More; "The Path to Survival" by Eliezer S. Yudkowsky.

Another challenge from Virginia Postrel in the June 2000 issue of Reason: "Joy, to the World: A techno-celebrity's childish manifesto" "Bill Joy is a lot smarter than I'll ever be. But he is also incredibly foolish, in the parochial, reality-dodging way that geniuses sometimes are. And he is willing to sacrifice an awful lot of other people's lives and liberty to his fantasies of power and control."

Robert A. Freitas Jr. has completed a lengthy technical risk analysis of some "gray goo" scenarios, which may be relevant to Joy's concerns about nanoreplicator safety and regulation: "Some Limits to Global Ecophagy by Biovorous Nanoreplicators, with Public Policy Recommendations"

Draft proposal: "Foresight Guidelines on Molecular Nanotechnology"

The dangers that worry Bill Joy have been discussed for quite some time. "A Dialog on Dangers" by K. Eric Drexler was published in 1988.

Bill Joy was a participant in the Foresight and IMM Spring 2000 Senior Associate Gathering "Engines of Creation 2000: Confronting Singularity". The issues he raised in his Wired essay received further attention there.

"Techno Worries Miss the Target" by Glenn Harlan Reynolds, Thursday, June 08, 2000 on the Intellectual Web site forcefully argues the advantages of "openness" over relinquishment. Many reader comments are included.

"Wait a Nano-Second..., Crushing nanotechnology would be a terrible thing." by Glenn H. Reynolds, professor of law, U. of Tennessee, and Dave Kopel, Independence Institute, published on July 5, 2000 in the National Review Online argues that banning nanotechnology would actually increase the probability that nanotechnology would be developed and used for destructive purposes. Reynolds and Kopel cite Ed Regis's history of biological warfare, The Biology of Doom, to point out that the 1972 treaty banning biological weapons paradoxically encouraged several signatory nations to accelerate development of biological warfare because they knew the US would not develop the technology, thus giving them the chance to obtain a decisive advantage.

BBC News reports on nanotechnology

"Smaller is better", by BBC News Online's Kevin Anderson, cites nanotechnology research at Sandia National Laboratories and at IBM as leading to extremely fast but inexpensive computers, smart fabrics, and medical devices that could circulate in the bloodstream.

Sandia National Laboratory and Worcester Polytechnic Institute join nanotechnology revolution

A press release "Sandia joins national charge into 21st century nanotechnology revolution" reports how "Sandia and other Department of Energy national laboratories will venture further into the truly tiny realm of atomic and molecular maneuvering following an announcement of a 'National Nanotechnology Initiative' by President Clinton today [Jan. 21, 2000] from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena." The press release contains about a dozen links to descriptions of nanoscale science and technology projects at Sandia.

"Tiny Machines Do the Work of Giants: WPI Professor Pioneers Research in the Miniature World of Nanotechnology", a press release from WPI, speculates that work in WPI's Nanoindenter Lab studying micromachines could eventually lead to entire laboratories on a chip and even to medical nanomachines traveling through the bloodstream or interfacing with the human nervous system.

Nanotechnology Panel on NPR

NPR's Diane Rehm Show featured a panel discussion of nanotechnology on January 18, 2000. "Scientists are now able to manipulate matter at a molecular level and are working to create tiny mechanisms that have the potential to bring about the next technological revolution. A panel talks about the technology and how it could transform a range of scientific fields." Guests:

  • Carlo Montemagno, professor of bioengineering at Cornell University
  • Don Eigler, IBM Almaden Research Center
  • Ellen Williams, physics professor at University of Maryland
  • James Ellenbogen, principal scientist, nanosystems group, Mitre Corporation

To hear the show using RealAudio, see the show's Web page: After this week, the show's archives can be found at:

Science fiction writer Spider Robinson looks at long term effects of nanotechnology upon humanity

In a New Year's Day article "When we will be like the gods: Spider Robinson on the year 3000", Robinson describes how the "technological singularity" coming in the next 50 years will produce individuals who will be almost incomprehensible to us. Immortal and invulnerable, able to be male or female or change body types at will, alternating between living in "meat" bodies and living inside computers where they can pass centuries of subjective time in mere seconds of real time, such a person ("Morgan" in Robinson's narrative) might not even seem human to us. Even the calendar will be changed:

"Growing uneasy, you ask Morgan just when this technological singularity will occur. Brief confusion arises, since she's unfamiliar with your dating system. To her, the year is not 3000 but 1014 A.D.

After Drexler, that is.

Now, it starts to make sense. Morgan's society measures time from the publication -- in 1986, by your reckoning -- of the book Engines of Creation, by K. Eric Drexler.

Given his nanotechnology, much of what Morgan has been saying suddenly becomes considerably more plausible."

Wall Street Journal highlights nanotechnology in "The Amazing Future"

The Wall Street Journal has a special millennium edition, the January 1st, 2000 issue, on "The Amazing Future," available on their Web site: The potential of nanotechnology is highlighted in two articles, neither of which shies away from the more far-reaching consequences of progress in nanotechnology, consequences like immortality and cryonics:

Nanotechnology to solve Santa Claus's biggest problem

A fanciful Web article "Christmas Physics: Nano-Toymaking" speculates that the solution to Santa Claus's biggest problem — how he could "possibly carry enough presents in his sleigh to grant the wishes of the world's 191 million children" — would be to use nanotechnology to construct the presents on-site, using atoms already present under the tree.

SF Weekly reports nanoscience progress, but seriously confuses Foresight's stance on nanotechnology

"Small Wonders", a featured published in the SF Weekly in December, 1999, describes interesting progress in nanoscale science accomplished by Bay Area researchers, but is seriously confused about quantum mechanics. Accusing Drexler of ignoring quantum mechanics in Nanosystems (look up "quantum" in the index if you want to judge for yourself), the SF Weekly claims molecular machines won't work and that Foresight has somehow fooled Time, Business Week and most other publications into believing "...misconceptions about nanodevelopment..." Ralph Merkle points out some basic quantum mechanics they seem to have overlooked, see

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