Enzyme pumps are a new class of technology based on energy released form a chemical reaction when an analyze is present. There is no fuel source needed because the target molecule for the sensor is the fuel source.
Fluid pumps can be attached to a substrate that function as both sensors and as pumps that activate only when their analyze is present. Some challenges include the specificity of analyzes as a fuel source and connecting that back to a motive force for each analyze, and the relationships between the analyte concentration, reaction rates, and the pumping velocity.
There are several very near term applications of these pumps; they can be used for neutralizing nerve agents with apparent efficacy. Other promising applications include curing diabetes, or drug delivery. An example is an enzyme pump that releases insulin in relation to the presence of glucose.