Molecular Drills disrupt the biofilms and reduce the biomass.
Biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment due to multiple tolerance mechanisms (phenotypic resistance). This causes persistence of biofilm infections in spite of antibiotic exposure which predisposes to antibiotic resistance development (genetic resistance). Reduction in biofilm biomass of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus following 15, 30, and 45 min of irradiation (291 mW cm-2, 405 nm light) in the presence of 2x MIC of antibiotic, 1% DMSO or 2x MIC of MNMs DL-654, DL-877, and DL-878 in the presence and absence of light. Biofilm biomass was determined using the crystal violet method. Each bar represents the mean ± SEM of at least 3 biological replicas. Asterisks denote the statistical significance level of the comparison between irradiated samples and the corresponding dark controls determined using a Kruskal- Wallis test in GraphPadPrism8.*=p<0.05, **=p<0.01