Foresight Institute Stage 2: Implementation > Speeding the development of molecular nanotechnology

Technical Bibliography for Research on Positional Mechanosynthesis

Robert A. Freitas Jr.
Research Scientist, Zyvex Corp.
16 December 2003

A more complete and fully annotated bibliography on mechanosynthesis is being maintained and regularly updated by Robert Freitas at the Nanofactory Collaboration website.

Molecular Manipulation for Mechanosynthesis (Theory)

K. Eric Drexler, "Molecular engineering: an approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 78(September 1981):5275-5278.

H.H. Farrell, M. Levinson, "Scanning tunneling microscope as a structure-modifying tool," Phys. Rev. B 31(1985):3593-3598.

R. Gomer, "Possible mechanisms of atom transfer in scanning tunneling microscopy," IBM J. Res. Dev. 30(July 1986):428-430.

K. Eric Drexler, John S. Foster, "Synthetic tips," Nature 343(15 February 1990):600.

K. Eric Drexler, "Molecular tip arrays for molecular imaging and nanofabrication," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9(1991):1394-1397.

K. Eric Drexler, Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1992;

Ralph C. Merkle, "Molecular manufacturing: adding positional control to chemical synthesis," Chem. Design Automation News 8(September-October 1993):1;

K. Eric Drexler, "Molecular nanomachines: physical principles and implementation strategies," Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23(1994):377-405.

Ralph C. Merkle, "A proposed 'metabolism' for a hydrocarbon assembler," Nanotechnology 8(1997):149-162;

Ralph C. Merkle, "Molecular building blocks and development strategies for molecular nanotechnology," Nanotechnology 11(2000):89-99;

Molecular Manipulation for Mechanosynthesis (Experimental)

Wilson Ho, Hyojune Lee, "Single bond formation and characterization with a scanning tunneling microscope," Science 286(26 November 1999):1719-1722;

Saw-Wai Hla, Karl-Heinz Rieder, "STM control of chemical reactions: single-molecule synthesis," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54(2003):307-330.

Hydrogen Abstraction Tools (Theory)

Michael Page, Donald W. Brenner, "Hydrogen abstraction from a diamond surface: Ab initio quantum chemical study using constrained isobutane as a model," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113(1991):3270-3274.

Charles B. Musgrave, Jason K. Perry, Ralph C. Merkle, William A. Goddard III, "Theoretical studies of a hydrogen abstraction tool for nanotechnology," Nanotechnology 2(1991):187-195;

Xiao Yan Chang, Martin Perry, James Peploski, Donald L. Thompson, Lionel M. Raff, "Theoretical studies of hydrogen-abstraction reactions from diamond and diamond-like surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 99(15 September 1993):4748-4758.

Susan B. Sinnott, Richard J. Colton, Carter T. White, Donald W. Brenner, "Surface patterning by atomically-controlled chemical forces: molecular dynamics simulations," Surf. Sci. 316(1994):L1055-L1060.

D.W. Brenner, S.B. Sinnott, J.A. Harrison, O.A. Shenderova, "Simulated engineering of nanostructures," Nanotechnology 7(1996):161-167;

Hydrogen Abstraction Tools (Experimental)

J.W. Lyding, K. Hess, G.C. Abeln, D.S. Thompson, J.S. Moore, M.C. Hersam, E.T. Foley, J. Lee, Z. Chen, S.T. Hwang, H. Choi, P.H. Avouris, I.C. Kizilyalli, "UHV-STM nanofabrication and hydrogen/deuterium desorption from silicon surfaces: implications for CMOS technology," Appl. Surf. Sci. 130(1998):221-230.

E.T. Foley, A.F. Kam, J.W. Lyding, P.H. Avouris, "Cryogenic UHV-STM study of hydrogen and deuterium desorption from Si(100)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(1998):1336-1339.

M.C. Hersam, G.C. Abeln, J.W. Lyding, "An approach for efficiently locating and electrically contacting nanostructures fabricated via UHV-STM lithography on Si(100)," Microelectronic Engineering 47(June 1999):235-237.

A. Ricca, C.W. Bauschlicher Jr., J.K. Kang, C.B. Musgrave, "Hydrogen abstraction from a diamond (111) surface in a uniform electric field," Surf. Sci. 429(1999):199-205.

L.J. Lauhon, W. Ho, "Inducing and observing the abstraction of a single hydrogen atom in bimolecular reaction with a scanning tunneling microscope," J. Phys. Chem. 105(2000):3987-3992.

Hydrogen Donation Tools (Experimental)

B.J. McIntyre, M. Salmeron, G.A. Somorjai, "Nanocatalysis by the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope operating inside a reactor cell," Science 265(2 September 1994):1415-1418.

Wolfgang T. Muller, David L. Klein, Thomas Lee, John Clarke, Paul L. McEuen, Peter G. Schultz, "A strategy for the chemical synthesis of nanostructures," Science 268(14 April 1995):272-273.

Diamond Mechanosynthesis Tools (Theory)

Stephen P. Walch, Ralph C. Merkle, "Theoretical studies of diamond mechanosynthesis reactions," Nanotechnology 9(December 1998):285-296;

Fedor N. Dzegilenko, Deepak Srivastava, Subhash Saini, "Simulations of carbon nanotube tip assisted mechano-chemical reactions on a diamond surface," Nanotechnology 9(December 1998):325-330

Ralph C. Merkle, Robert A. Freitas Jr., "Theoretical analysis of a carbon-carbon dimer placement tool for diamond mechanosynthesis," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3(August 2003):319-324; or

Jingping Peng, Robert A. Freitas Jr., Ralph C. Merkle, "Theoretical Analysis of Diamond Mechanosynthesis. Part I. Stability of C2 Mediated Growth of Nanocrystalline Diamond C(110) Surface," J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 1(March 2004):62-70.

David J. Mann, Jingping Peng, Robert A. Freitas Jr., Ralph C. Merkle, "Theoretical Analysis of Diamond Mechanosynthesis. Part II. C2 Mediated Growth of Diamond C(110) Surface via Si/Ge-Triadamantane Dimer Placement Tools," J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 1(March 2004):71-80.

Silicon Mechanosynthesis Tools (Theory)

A. Herman, "Towards mechanosynthesis of diamondoid structures. I. Quantum-chemical molecular dynamics simulations of sila-adamantane synthesis on hydrogenated Si(111) surface with the STM," Nanotechnology 8(September 1997):132-144.

A. Herman, "Towards mechanosynthesis of diamondoid structures. II. Quantum-chemical molecular dynamics simulations of mechanosynthesis on an hydrogenated Si(111) surface with STM," Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 7(January 1999):43-58.

Silicon/Germanium Mechanosynthesis Tools (Experimental)

R.S. Becker, J.A. Golovchenko, B.S. Swartzentruber, "Atomic-scale surface modifications using a tunneling microscope," Nature 325(1987):419-421.

In-Whan Lyo, Phaedon Avouris, "Field-induced nanometer- to atomic-scale manipulation of silicon surfaces with the STM," Science 253(12 July 1991):173-176.

M. Aono, A. Kobayashi, F. Grey, H. Uchida, D.H. Huang, "Tip-sample interactions in the scanning tunneling microscope for atomic-scale structure fabrication," J. Appl. Phys. 32(1993):1470-1477.

C.T. Salling, M.G. Lagally, "Fabrication of atomic-scale structures on Si(001) surfaces," Science 265(22 July 1994):502-506.

Dehuan Huang, Hironaga Uchida, Masakazu Aono, "Deposition and subsequent removal of single Si atoms on the Si(111)-7x7 surface by a scanning tunneling microscope," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12(July/August 1994):2429-2433.

P. Avouris, "Manipulation of matter at the atomic and molecular levels," Acc. Chem. Res. 28(1995):95-102.

G. Meyer, K.H. Rieder, "Controlled manipulation of single atoms and small molecules with the scanning tunneling microscope," Surf. Sci. 377-9(1997):1087-1093.

Noriaki Oyabu, Oscar Custance, Insook Yi, Yasuhiro Sugawara, Seizo Morita1, "Mechanical vertical manipulation of selected single atoms by soft nanoindentation using near contact atomic force microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2 May 2003):176102;


Foresight Institute Stage 2: Implementation > Speeding the development of molecular nanotechnology