Now we have Jo Anne Shatkin of Cadmus Group on assessing risks of nanoscale materials. She described the process she uses, making the point that hazards are different from risks—no material is completely safe, and there is no risk if there is no exposure. Risk = hazard x exposure probability. Risk assessment is for making decisions in the presence of uncertainty, it keeps pace with technology, and can help prioritize research directions. The goal is an adaptive decision framework enabling us to proceed despite uncertainty, requiring a dynamic approach. The key is to include a focus on exposure potential rather than toxicity only. As an example, she reviewed published results for SWCNT (single wall carbon nanotubes) in which there was a “disconnect” regarding the issue of exposure. And on that note, the conference breaks for lunch & schmoozing, or an optional lunch seminar with Nanoscience Technologies, Inc., “Create Product Advantages Using Structural DNA Process Tools,” presented by David Keenan. This company is based on the DNA-based work of Prof. Ned Seeman, a Feynman Prize winner.